Most people spend countless hours doing research when it comes time to purchase a new, high-quality mattress. People spend time in stores trying out different beds and countless more hours online doing research.Your pillows are equally as important when it comes to the quality of your sleep.Today, we’re going to take a closer look at the best pillows on the market, so you can finally decide which are the best pillows for you and how you sleep. ModelHighlightsPrice (Queen)Amerisleep Comfort ClassicSix inches of pressure-relieving Bio-Pur® foam.$90Amerisleep Flex PillowHundreds of MicroFlex cushions that you can fluff into any shape.$75Amerisleep Dual Comfort PillowSoft side and firm side, with your choice of a low or mid-loft.$130-$150Zoma PillowShredded memory foam fill keeps you cool and comfortable.$75Vaya PillowFoam blend features contouring support and resists flattening.$60Lincove Goose DownAn eco-friendly latex mattress with great bounce and support.$49OLLYVOGUE Adjustable Down AlternativeFour inches of pressure-relieving hyper-elastic polymer.$79Coop Home Goods Eden Adjustable Shredded Gel Memory FoamFlippable all-foam mattress for customized comfort.$79Columbia Extreme Cooling Double-Sided Memory FoamUses copper-infused and gel-infused foams to help keep you cool.$63SweeSleep Talalay LatexUses copper-infused and gel-infused foams to help keep you cool.$24Utopia Bedding Microfiber Fill Queen PillowsBudget-friendly option, 2-pack.$23.99Best Pillows of 20201. Amerisleep Comfort ClassicThe Amerisleep Comfort Classic is a memory foam pillow designed to reduce pressure relief and limit tossing and turning. This pillow is great for side sleepers (due to its loft) and will work for back sleepers but it is likely too thick for stomach sleepers.Amerisleep uses eco-friendly Bio-Pur® memory foam to be breathable and comfortable. Plus, the Comfort Classic is ventilated with airways to help promote consistent airflow throughout the night, so you don’t have to worry about flipping the pillow over to the cool side.2. Amerisleep Flex PillowIf you enjoy the ability to customize your comfort, the Amerisleep Flex Pillow might help you achieve a better night’s rest. It’s a very different model from the Amerisleep Comfort Classic. Whereas Amerisleep’s Comfort Classic is one solid block of foam (with ventilated air holes), the Flex Pillow contains hundreds of MicroFlex cushions.MicroFlex cushions are bits of shredded foam, promoting breathability and giving you the freedom to fluff your pillow into any shape. This adaptability not only allows you to shape the pillow to suit your sleeping position, but also ensures that your pillow will adapt if you change positions in the night. The Flex Pillow can provide comfort and support to any sleeping style and is especially helpful for combination sleepers.The Flex Pillow includes free shipping, a 100-night sleep trial with free returns, and a 10-year warranty.3. Amerisleep Dual Comfort PillowThe motto of the Amerisleep Dual Comfort Pillow is “Two sides for total comfort.” One side feels firm, the other soft; the design makes the pillow an excellent fit for side and back sleepers. You can choose from a 5-inch loft or a 6-inch loft.The firm side provides the gentle support that side sleepers need for a healthy spine alignment. Back sleepers can reverse the pillow and lie on the soft side, which offers the cushion needed to keep their necks straight.The Dual Comfort Pillow is a good pillow for those who switch up their sleeping styles now and again. It’s also an excellent way to top off a mattress in a guest bedroom, providing visitors with a choice in comfort that’s as simple as flipping their pillow.Like other Amerisleep pillows, the Dual Comfort Pillow comes with a 100-night sleep trial and a 10-year warranty.4. Zoma PillowThe Zoma Sports Pillow is another great memory foam pillow. The pillow is full of unique shredded memory foam that uses MicroCushion™ technology.Unlike other adjustable pillows that come with extra fill, the Zoma Pillow offers adaptive support through the inclusion of MicroCushions™. MicroCushions™ allow you to mold the pillow and find a feel that’s most comfortable for your sleep needs without having to remove or add extra filling inside. Due to its adaptability, the Zoma Pillow can work for side, back, and stomach sleepers alike.To promote breathability, the Zoma Pillow is covered with ventilated polyester fabric to wick away moisture and prevent heat retention.The Zoma Pillow comes with free shipping, free returns, and a 10-year warranty.5. Vaya PillowThe Vaya Pillow provides a way for you to rest your head in pure comfort. It molds to your head and neck for support but is springy enough to resist flattening. When you get up in the morning the Vaya Pillow is quick to snap back to its original shape.The pillow is 6 inches thick and suitable for all sleeping positions.The pillow has a plush Vaya Foam Blend core, wrapped in a soft and breathable cover. The foam core also wicks away heat for a good night’s rest. The foam is certified safe by CertiPUR-US®, guaranteeing that the pillow was made without harmful chemicals.The pillow cover is removable, making it easier to wash and dry. Both the cover and the pillow core are machine washable, although you shouldn’t run the cover through the dryer. Instead, lay it flat and let it air dry.The Vaya Pillow includes free shipping, a 100-night sleep trial with free returns and a 10-year warranty.6. Lincove 100% Goose Down Queen PillowIf it’s the utmost in luxury and comfort you’re after, you can’t go wrong with this 100% goose down pillow from Lincove, which is arguably one of the best down pillows on the market.This goose down pillow is available in a variety of different sizes ranging from standard to king, and also a variety of different firmness’s, ranging from soft to firm. The variety they provide is nice since pillows are far from one-size-fits-all. With Lincove’s comprehensive selection, you should have no trouble finding the ideal down pillow for you.The 800-fill power down is incredibly high-quality and soft, and the 600 thread-count cotton sateen cover is equally supple and luxurious. Both the cover and the fill breathe exceptionally well, helping you to regulate your temperature through the course of the night.The down fill for this pillow is RDS-certified, which ensures that this pillow was manufactured under stringent standards to prevent animal rights abuses. You can track the down used in Lincove’s pillows from the farm to your bedroom, so you can ensure that these pillows were ethically sourced.Each pillow is built to stand the test of time, and this Lincove goose down pillow will remain comfortable for many years to come. The manufacturer recommends using a pillow protector over the cover to keep the pillow safe from stains, dust mites, and allergens; all factors that contribute to the premature wear of pillows.While these pillows aren’t the most affordable, you’ll have a hard time finding a more luxurious or supportive pillow on the market. If you’re serious about sleep and looking for a quality goose down pillow, you’ll want to give this one a closer look.7. JOLLYVOGUE 2-Pack Adjustable Down Alternative Queen PillowsA high-quality down alternative two-pack for a price that’s comparable to most single pillows is why JOLLYVOGUE gets the nod on this list. These pillows are soft and luxurious and feel much more expensive than their paltry price tag entails.These pillows feature an attractive cotton cover with a lattice pattern and a large gusset, which helps the pillow maintain shape. These pillows are available in standard, queen, and king sizes, and each pillow is entirely adjustable to tailor to each customer’s needs.The pillows ship to you medium-firm, but you can adjust the firmness to your liking by using the zipper on the pillow’s cover to remove some of the fill. JOLLYVOGUE also includes a bag for you to store any extra fill in so you can save it away for safekeeping. So, whether you prefer a firm pillow or one that’s significantly softer, these pillows have you covered.Since these pillows are adjustable, they’re ideal regardless of your sleeping position. Back, stomach, and side sleepers alike are sure to find comfort with these affordable down alternative pillows.While many down alternative pillows have fill that tends to clump and become lumpy over time, the fibers of these pillows are infused with silicone to prevent clumping and keep your pillow feeling like new. Should you need to wash your pillow, the entire thing is machine washable, which should help you get even more life out of your pillows before they need to be changed.The manufacturer offers a 30-day trial period and a one-year warranty on all pillows, so you’ll also get some peace of mind with your purchase.8. Coop Home Goods Eden Adjustable Shredded Gel Memory FoamCoop Home Goods has been making waves in the mattress community recently, and it’s for a good reason. Their mattresses and pillows all feature high-quality materials and construction, and high-tech materials designed to help you sleep cool and comfortable.Each pillow is made from materials that are CertiPUR-US® and GreenGuard certified. These certifications ensure that Coop’s pillows are better for you and your family as well as the environment.These pillows feature shredded memory foam, which is encased in a removable Lulltra fabric case, which is made from a blend of polyester and bamboo-infused rayon. The cover, coupled with shredded memory foam fill provides better breathability and heat management than most memory foam pillows, which makes them ideal for those who sleep hot.The Lulltra cover zips open so that you can wash the cover or add or remove fill to find the perfect loft and firmness for you. Not only is the memory foam fill removable, but they also include an additional bag of foam, so you can increase the adjustable loft even higher if you prefer.Coop Home Goods makes the Eden pillows in king, queen, and standard size configurations, so you’ll have no trouble finding the ideal size for your comfort. That, coupled with the adjustable fill, make the Eden pillow one of the most versatile and customizable pillows on the market.Plus, the Coop backs the Eden pillow with a generous 100-night in-home trial period and a lengthy 5-year warranty, so you’ll have plenty of peace of mind should anything go wrong with your new pillow. All of these features, coupled with the generous warranty and trial period, make this one of the best memory foam pillows on the market, and it’s one of our top picks.9. Columbia Extreme Cooling Double-Sided Memory Foam Queen PillowWhen you think pillows, Columbia may be one of the last names that come to mind. The famous outdoor outfitter seems much more comfortable out in the elements than they do in the bedroom. But their Extreme Cooling pillow may change how you feel about this iconic outfitter.This dual-sided pillow features a gel memory foam size that offers Columbia’s Omni-Freeze technology, which is activated by your body heat to help keep you cool all night long. The other size features their Omni-Wick technology, which helps to wick moisture and heat away from the body while providing you with the plush feel of a traditional pillow.This standard/queen size pillow has a medium-high 5.5” loft, which most sleepers find to be quite comfortable. Unlike some of the other pillows on our list, the loft and firmness of this pillow aren’t adjustable. So, if you don’t find it to be comfortable right out of the box, there isn’t much you can do to change that.For those who prefer a memory foam pillow but tend to sleep hot, this may be the ideal pillow for you. Memory foam tends to sleep warmer than other materials, even when it’s infused with gel, copper, bamboo, or any other heat-wicking fabric. But, this pillow does an exceptional job of keeping you cool, and you can feel the pillow working when you lay on it.If you feel like you can’t find a memory foam pillow that keeps you cool enough to get a restful night’s sleep, this pillow may be perfect for you.10. SweeSleep Talalay Latex Queen PillowFor those who prefer the contoured support of a latex pillow, this option from SweeSleep may be an ideal option for you. This pillow features several intuitive design features that make it a compelling choice.The pillow itself is made from a solid piece of Talalay latex, which lends itself exceptionally well to pillows since it’s lighter and bouncier feeling than Dunlop latex. The foam is vented throughout to provide superior airflow, helping you to sleep more comfortably.The foam itself is 100% natural latex, and it carries Oeko-Tek’s Standard 100 certification, ensuring that the product you’re buying is safe for you and your family. This pillow is also hypoallergenic, making it a reliable choice for allergy sufferers, provided they don’t have a latex allergy.The cover is removable and machine washable, allowing you to wash your cover as often as necessary to keep your pillow in like-new condition. SweeSleep offers a robust five-year warranty on the pillow, so you’ll be covered should anything go wrong.11. Utopia Bedding Gusseted Quilted Microfiber Fill Queen PillowsSure, it’s easy to find a pair of inexpensive pillows. But you’ll be hard-pressed to find an affordable pair of pillows that are as high-quality or as comfortable as these gusseted queen size pillows from Utopia Bedding.These pillows feature 800-gram polyfill in the queen size pillow and 1050-gram polyfill for the King size, which provides plenty of fluff and a moderate loft that works well for side and back sleepers. The 96 GSM microfiber cover feels luxurious, and it offers excellent breathability to keep you cool and comfortable all night long.These pillows are machine washable and dryable, so you can also throw these in the wash to refresh them whenever they’re feeling less than fresh. With such an attractive price, these pillows are a great addition to your closet or guest room for when company comes over. These pillows are also high enough in quality for you to use them nightly in your bedroom.Pillow Types to ConsiderWhen it comes to pillows, there’s a dizzying array of different types and materials on the market. The truth is, all of the pillow types on our list can be extremely comfortable. It boils down to a matter of personal opinion, so it can be helpful to try out multiple pillow types. The descriptions below should give you a full understanding of which pillow type you gravitate towards.Memory Foam PillowsMemory foam has become infinitely more popular over the years thanks to its ability to contour to the shape of your head and neck while still providing plenty of support. These pillows are available in a variety of different sizes and lofts, making them ideal for the majority of sleepers.Memory foam pillows are available in slab styles, which feature one solid piece of foam, and shredded styles, which use shredded memory foam for the pillow’s fill. Shredded memory foam pillows have a bit more give to them, and they have a feeling that’s more similar to a traditional fill pillow compared to a pillow made from solid memory foam.Memory foam has a closed-cell structure, so it retains heat more quickly than some other materials. To counteract this, manufacturers often infuse their pillows with gel, copper, or other materials that wick heat away from the body. These infusions also make their way into the pillowcase in many cases to provide additional heat reduction.Latex PillowsLatex is similar to memory foam in the sense that it’s famous for its ability to contour to your body while still providing plenty of support. In fact, latex offers even more support than memory foam does.Also, like memory foam, latex can be left in whole pieces or shredded, with the latter providing an airier sleep surface that’s reminiscent of more traditional fill like down. Latex slab pillows feel quite similar to memory foam, with a bit more support.One area where latex differs is that the cell structure is more open than with memory foam. So, while latex doesn’t necessarily sleep cool, it does sleep cooler than memory foam. Many manufacturers still infuse their latex pillows with gel or copper so that their pillows will sleep cooler.Feather PillowsOne of the most popular fills of all time, feather pillows, make use of goose and duck feathers to provide an ultra-soft and luxurious pillow fill. Most manufacturers use micro feathers, which are very small, and tend to curl around themselves. This characteristic helps make the feathers stronger and more supportive, so they can handle your weight without bottoming out.Feathers aren’t quite as soft as down is, so some down is usually added to a feather pillow to provide additional softness.Down PillowsSimilar to feather pillows, down pillows also use feathers as their primary fill. Specifically, down is the undercoat of waterfowl, like ducks or geese. These feathers are incredibly soft, supple, and cushioning, and they offer perhaps the most luxurious pillow experience of all.But, down isn’t particularly supportive, which can be a problem for most sleepers. To circumvent this, pillow manufacturers often add more supportive feathers to the pillow to provide more support without sacrificing the characteristic softness of a down pillow.With down and feather pillows, the fill power is a measurement that indicates several important characteristics about a pillow, including its quality, durability, and loft height. Fill power measures the amount of space an ounce of down or feathers occupies.Pillows with higher fill power are higher quality, and they use larger down or feather fibers than those with a lower fill power. High fill power pillows are typically more luxurious, longer-lasting, and more comfortable than those with a lower fill power.Down and feather pillows also require daily fluffing to help them return to their ideal shape and loft height. But, that’s a small price to pay for the comfort they provide.Down Alternative PillowsDown and feather pillows have been among the most popular and luxurious materials to use in pillows and comforters. Some people do avoid this fill for a variety of reasons.For one, many people are allergic to down, so down or feather pillows aren’t an option for them. For many other people, they avoid down for humanitarian reasons. Whatever the reason may be, down and feather alternatives are another popular pillow fill option.Down alternative pillows are usually hypoallergenic and are cruelty-free, which makes them an attractive option to many people. Down alternatives are also considerably cheaper than the genuine article. Unfortunately, they don’t provide the same level of luxury and comfort as the real thing does.While more expensive down alternatives do come close to replicating the feel and comfort of down, they still fall short. But, this type of fill has come a long way, and each year it seems that down alternatives get closer to the real thing.So, if you’re looking for an affordable pillow that still provides a high-quality feel that’s free of animal cruelty, a down alternative may be a solid choice for you.Buckwheat PillowsAnother popular pillow fill material is buckwheat or Sobakawa. This fill is made from the empty hulls of buckwheat seeds. These seed casings are springy and provide firm support and above-average contouring.Buckwheat is hypoallergenic, long-lasting, and many people find it to be the most comfortable material to sleep on. Most people find that a buckwheat pillow feels somewhere in between a down and memory foam pillow.Buckwheat pillows do generate a bit of noise when they’re ruffled, so they do take some getting used to for some people. However, many people swear by a buckwheat pillow and think that it provides them with a better night’s sleep than other fill materials do.Polyfill PillowsPolyfill is similar to down alternatives in the sense that synthetic or natural fibers are used to provide cushioning and support. But these pillows aren’t designed to imitate the feel of down or feathers.Instead, these affordable pillows are designed to provide as much support and comfort as they can for as cheaply as possible. As you’d imagine, polyfill pillows are among the least comfortable and least technologically advanced on our list.Polyfill pillows are great if you’re on a tight budget, or if you need a set of extra pillows for occasional use, or for when guests stay with you. But, if you’re in the market for pillows you’ll be sleeping on night after night, you may want to find a better alternative to the humble polyfill pillow.Hybrid PillowsHybrid pillows are a relatively new concept, and they aim to provide a “best of both worlds” approach to pillows. Some people like to switch back and forth between the types of pillows they use, even sometimes within the same night. If that sounds like you, a hybrid pillow could be ideal.Hybrid pillows offer a distinct sleeping surface on each side. Often one side of the pillow is memory foam while the other is down, feather, or a down alternative. These versatile pillows are ideal for combination sleepers, or for stashing away as a pair for your guests. That way, they’ll have multiple options when it comes to the feel of their pillow.Pillow BudgetSetting a pillow budget can be a bit difficult since there’s such a wide range of prices you’ll find. Some sleepers may find that $20-40 is all they need to find the perfect pillow for the way they sleep. Others may find that the best pillows for them cost upwards of $100 each.Of course, at some point, you’ll need to put your foot down and decide how much you’re willing to spend on new pillows. Quality pillows typically range from $10-100 each, and your personal preferences will help dictate which pillow is best for you.When it comes to a pillow’s price point, a higher price tag is usually an indicator of a longer-lasting pillow. For example, you may find a $15 pillow to be exceptionally comfortable for the way you sleep. But, don’t expect that $15 pillow to last you very long.Sleeping PositionWhen it comes time to select the best pillows for you, you need to start by looking at the way you sleep. Not all pillows are created equally. Depending on the way you sleep, you may find a particular pillow to be exceptionally comfortable or not comfortable at all. Here’s what you need from your pillow based on the way you sleep.Side SleepersSide sleeping is the most popular position in the world, so there’s no shortage of pillows geared towards side sleepers. While sleeping on your side does place stress on your entire spinal column, our bodies do a great job of adjusting to keep our spine’s aligned, especially if you’re sleeping on a mattress that’s comfortable for you.Side sleepers need a pillow that is thick and supportive, with a loft that’s high enough to keep their head centered between their shoulders as they sleep.Back SleepersSleeping on your back is believed to be the best sleep position for our bodies. As long as you don’t deal with sleep apnea, sleeping on your back provides the most spine and neck support of any sleeping position.Back sleepers need a pillow with less loft to keep their head optimally positioned and level between their shoulders. A pillow with a loft that’s too high can put stress on your lower back and spine, while a pillow with a loft that’s too low can cause strain on your upper back and spine.Stomach SleepersSleeping on your stomach is the worst way to sleep, from a health perspective. Sleeping on your stomach forces your neck backward, throwing it out of alignment with the rest of your spine. But, we fall asleep in the position our bodies find most comfortable. So, if you’re a stomach sleeper, you need to focus on reducing that stress as much as possible.Stomach sleepers need a pillow with a low loft and limited support. An ideal pillow for stomach sleepers should be relatively flat, and nearly level with the surface of the mattress. Pillows with a higher loft will force your head backward at an uncomfortable angle, and you’ll awake with quite a neckache.Sleeping Cool and AirflowOne of the keys to a great night’s sleep is ensuring that there is adequate airflow. When your pillow, mattress, and even your comforter lack plenty of airflow, the stagnant air is trapped and warmed by your body heat. The result is you getting progressively hotter through the course of the night, likely waking up in a pool of sweat. It’s far from pleasant.The key to avoiding this is by choosing a cooling mattress and pillows with plenty of airflow. Some materials offer inherently better airflow than others. For example, down fill provides significantly better airflow than memory foam by the nature of its design.Just because a particular material doesn’t have inherently good airflow, that doesn’t necessarily mean it’s going to sleep hot.Materials like memory foam and latex, which sleep inherently hotter, can be infused with copper, gel, or other materials designed to help you sleep cooler. You can say the same for the pillow cover, which can be infused with fibers like gel, copper, bamboo, or eucalyptus for heat management.What Characteristics Should I Look For In A Pillow?When shopping for new pillows, there are a few characteristics you should be looking for regardless of the type of pillow you’re choosing.Firmness is one of the most important things people consider, as this affects how much support the pillow offers. Those who prefer more support generally reach for a firmer pillow, and vice versa.Loft is another critical consideration, as this dictates the height of the pillow. Pillows with a higher loft are taller, while those with a lower loft are shorter. The way you sleep will give you a good indication of the loft you need. Side and back sleepers tend to prefer a medium to high loft pillow, while stomach sleepers need a pillow with a lower loft.The pillow cover is also a surprisingly vital factor to pay attention to. First, you’ll want to look for a pillow with a removable cover. A removable cover will allow you to regularly throw the cover in the wash, which can dramatically prolong the pillow’s life.The material of the pillow cover is also essential, especially for those who sleep hot. If you sleep hot, look for a pillow that has a cover infused with copper, eucalyptus, gel, or bamboo, as these materials help to keep you cool, either by increasing airflow, wicking heat away from the body, or both.Speaking of material, the material the pillow itself is made out of will also be especially important for those who sleep hot. Hot sleepers may find that they sleep more comfortably with a down or feather pillow than they do with memory foam or latex option. Others find that a memory foam or latex pillow that offers cooling gel, copper, or other infusions is enough to keep them cool.Size is another factor to consider. We tend to think of pillows as all being one size, but there are several different sizes available. Standard, queen and king are the most popular sizes. But, there are also body pillows, European style pillows, and others. Most people opt for a standard or queen size pillow.You may all be interested in what kind of warranty accompanies the new pillows. Some pillows come with multi-year warranty periods, while others may only cover the pillow for a few months or a year. There isn’t much that can go wrong with a pillow, so this feature may be easy to disregard for some, but it’s still nice to have the peace of mind that comes with a warranty.Finally, you’ll need to consider your budget when shopping for new pillows. If you’re not looking to spend too much on your new pillows, you can quickly disqualify any pillows over a specific price point, which will make your search easier.Common QuestionsBuying new pillows is a significant decision, and it’s a decision you’ll probably need to live with for quite some time. We’ve rounded up some of the most common questions people have when shopping for the best pillows to help get you answers to what you’re curious about.How long do pillows last?All pillows should have a relatively short lifespan considering that our bodies shed skin and oils throughout the night, which can become a health concern over time. Some high-quality pillows may feel equally as comfortable after five years of use as they did on their first day. That doesn’t mean you should be using the same pillow for that long.As a rule of thumb, pillows should be changed every one to two years. Pillows that are exceptionally well made, particularly those with machine-washable covers you can wash, will last a bit longer. Even the best pillows should be replaced after every few years of use.What is the best pillow for neck pain?The best pillow for neck pain will depend mostly on what you find most comfortable. If you’re waking up with neck pain, it may be because your pillow has characteristics that don’t work well with how you sleep.For example, if you use a firm pillow with a high loft, you may want to switch to a softer pillow with less loft to see if that alleviates your neck pain.Is using a pillow bad for you?On the contrary, skipping a pillow when you sleep can you leave you waking up with a stiff neck and a throbbing headache. Pillows let your head and neck muscles relax, preventing muscle strain. Stomach sleepers may benefit from going pillow-less, but all other sleeping styles should use a pillow.How often should you wash your pillow?A machine washable pillow should be cleaned every three to six months. If you can’t wash your pillow, you can still freshen it up with a coating of baking soda. Pillowcases should be washed far more frequently, with some experts recommending you change them every few days to keep your face clean.How can I tell when to replace my pillows?If you’re not sure if you need to replace your pillows, there are a few signs to look for that may indicate that it’s time for a change.You can’t remember the last time you bought new pillowsNoticeable stains on the pillow cover from sweat and oilsLumps in the foam or fill of the pillowYour pillow constantly goes flatYou wake up with headaches, neck, or back painYour allergies are getting worseConclusionNow that you’ve had a crash course in everything you need to know to select the right pillow for your needs and the way you sleep, you should feel confident about finding your perfect pillows.We recommend that you try out as many different pillows as you can and develop some familiarity with how each other kind of pillow feels and whether or not it’s a good fit for the way you sleep. Whether you prefer a feather pillow, a memory foam pillow, or any other kind, you shouldn’t have any trouble finding your perfect fit.This article is for informational purposes and should not replace advice from your doctor or other medical professional.